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M 13  (NGC 6205),  in  Hercules

     M13 is the brightest globular cluster in the northern sky. Located in Hercules, it's a magnificent sight in binoculars as well as in a scope. It is large and approximately 22,800 light years distant from Earth. Burnham estimates that the number of stars in this densely packed cluster "cannot be less than a million;" Kepple and Sanner give a figure of "several hundred thousand."  If you lived on a planet in a solar system within this cluster, the entire night sky would be filled with stars as bright or brighter than Venus. Spectacular!

CCD (June 2005)




 RCOS Ritchey-Chretien telescope on an A-P 1200 GTO mount. Camera: SBIG ST-10MXE and CFW color wheel, controlled with  MaxIm 4.10 and internal guide chip.


 R, G, and B exposures 5 x 120 sec with Astrodon filters. 


 Calibrated and combined in MaxIm; final processing in Photoshop CS2.      


CCD (July 2003)

     This CCD image was grabbed with 3 minute exposures to check unguided performance. Overall, the tracking was adequate although some frames were discarded because of trailing. 


 2003 July 1


 Astro-Physics 130  EDF at f4.5 AP 1200GTO mount, unguided. 

 Camera: SBIG ST-10MXE and CFW color wheel, controlled with MaxIm


 R, G, and B exposures 3 x 180 sec. Luminance synthesized by averaging the R, G, and B



 Frames calibrated and RGB combined in MaxIm. The luminance layer was subjected to 

 DDP processing in MaxIm and then 3 iterations of Richardson-Lucy deconvolution in

 CCDSharp. Final processing with Levels and Curves in Photoshop. The image shown is

 the cropped central 50% (approximately) of the frame.

Film Version (Much Older)

 Date  25 April 2000

 Astro-Physics 130  EDF at f12 (2x Barlow)  on G-11 mount.    

 Guiding with ST-4 on a separate guide scope.   

 Exposure  One 30 min on PPF400 film, no filter
 Processing    Slight stretching and unsharp mask in Photoshop